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#LyX 1.4.1 created this file. For more info see http://www.lyx.org/
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\begin_body

\begin_layout Title
Pardus Init System
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset LatexCommand \tableofcontents{}

\end_inset


\newpage

\end_layout

\begin_layout Section
Introduction
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
All the operations held beginning with the the moment the operating system's
 kernel starts and the moment the user can log in is the boot phase.
 Mounting file systems, loading hardware drivers, starting system services
 and loading the graphical interface and presenting the login screen are
 all part of this process.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
When the computer is to be shut down, stopping of the services and unmounting
 mounted filesystems is also held by the same process.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
With Pardus release 1.1, we have moved to a new system that we call Müdür,
 leaving behind the classical boot process that is based on shell.
 This document explains the usage of this new system, which allows a faster
 boot and initialization, and that which is easier to develop and maintain
 as it is written in Python.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
The sections "Boot Process", "Basic Usage", and "Settings" are aimed towards
 users, and they explain the basic terms and information that may be needed
 in specific conditions.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
The sections "Packaging Information" and "Service Scripts" are aimed towards
 system administrators and integrators, and provide information needed when
 preparing a Pisi package or adding Pardus support to a third-party application.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
The section "Technical Structure" is aimed towards programmers and explains
 the components and details of Müdür to those who want to examine or develop
 it.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Section
Boot Process
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
When the computer powers up, the software named BIOS (Basic Input/Output
 System) on the mainboard starts running.
 After completing its own internal check and hardware preparation processes,
 it loads and runs the small boot loader application found in the MBR (Master
 Boot Record) at the very beginning of the default boot device (which can
 be a connected hard disk, CD-ROM drive or a USB disk).
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsection*
Boot Loader
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
In the installation of Pardus, the default boot loader Grub will be put
 to the beginning of the disk Pardus is installed to, and if there are any
 other operating systems in the disk, they will be written to the Grub settings
 file.
 This way, you can choose which operating system you want to run from the
 Grub menu when you turn on your computer..
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Boot loader loads the operating system kernel that you chose into memory
 with the help of BIOS procedures (called interrupts), and passes execution
 to the kernel.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
The Linux kernel can be compiled customizedly by choosing what hardware
 drivers to contain.These drivers can either be included in the kernel or
 in the system as modules to be loaded when necessary.As unused drivers increase
 the size and memory consumption of the kernel, we distribute hardware drivers
 as seperate modules as much as possible.This way, it is also possible to
 easily update by removing a module and installing its new version 
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
In moving on to the kernel from the boot loader, a kernel that does not
 contain the driver of the storage device can easily be loaded as the boot
 loader uses the device with the help of BIOS, but the kernel can not go
 on the boot/init process as it won't be able to "reach" this device once
 it gets the execution from the BIOS.As it is not practical to put the drivers
 to many storage environments, the boot loader loads into memory a second
 file called initrd (init ram disk) together with the kernel to solve this
 problem.In this file, less common storage device drivers are included, like
 a small file system.The kernel removes this file from the memory after loading
 necessary drivers (if any) from inside it.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsection*
The Kernel
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
After the kernel takes over hardware management and finishes its "preparations",
 opens the file system defined as root and starts the program /sbin/init.This
 program, being the base process, administers other processes.It runs the
 commands givens in the settings file for some predefined events (turning
 on the computer, shutting it down, power management etc.)
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsection*
Müdür
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
When the command /sbin/mudur.py, the main part of Müdür, is called by init
 when booting, it starts the udev service that is used for device management
 and automatic hardware recognition (hotplug).
 This service handles jobs like automatically running the related software
 and creating files under /dev directory that are needed to access the plugged
 device/inserted media when you plug in a USB disk or insert a CD.Müdür then
 checks the filesystems in those storage devices and mounts them.
 With /sbin/muavin.py, another part of Müdür, Müdür makes load the other
 hardware that is already in or part of the computer (coldplug) but whose
 driver is not included in initrd.
 When a new hardware is plugged, Muavin is also called by udev and handles
 loading of the driver(s).
 After sychronizing system clock with the hardware clock and making base
 network settings, Müdür starts Çomar, the configuration manager of Pardus.
 As a last step, it commands Çomar to start the services.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
When called during shutdown, it first tells Çomar to stop the services.
 Then synchronizes the system clock with the hardware clock again.
 Lastly, it unmounts mounted filesystems accordingly and makes sure they
 are turned off without data loss.
 After Müdür finishes its job, the init command gives the kernel the necessary
 command to turn off or restart the computer.
 
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsection*
Services
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Services are software that present the user or other programs with some
 functions, running in the background.
 For example, zemberek gives software Turkish syntax support, DBus provides
 desktop applications inter-communication, and cups provides printer support.
  Server software like SSH (which allows remote connections) also work as
 a service and are manageable.
 
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
When the services are started, the KDM (KDE Desktop Manager) service brings
 forward the user login screen.
 When username and password are entered, that user's desktop is loaded and
 starts running.
 
\end_layout

\begin_layout Section
Basic Usage
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Boot and hardware recognition systems run mostly automatically.
 
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
You can use Service Manager that is in System Options in Pardus Configuration
 Manager for jobs like seeing which services are installed in your computer,
 setting them to start or not when booting, checking the services' status,
 and restarting them when needed.
 
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
To manage services from command line and scripts, there is also the /bin/service
 command.
 
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
To see installed packages and their status, give the:
\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
service
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
command without a parameter or with the "list" parameter.
 
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
The commands
\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
service openssh start
\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
service openssh stop
\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
service openssh restart
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
will start, stop or restart the service given as the first parameter.
 
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
The command
\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
service openssh reload
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
in some services, makes the service reload its settings files and rearrange
 itself accordingly without stopping the server.
 It is not in use and effective in every service.
 
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
With the
\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
service openssh on
\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
service openssh off
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
commands, you can start and stop the services in the same manner.
 But the services that you start or stop this way will start if turned "on"
 or will not start if turned "off" at the next bootup.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsection*
RunLevels
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
The init command that runs the base process jobs has a runlevel concept.
 This runlevel system, historically between 0 and 6, is used to get the
 system to certain conditions.
 These levels are,
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
0 Turn the system off
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
1 Get the system to single-user mode
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
2-5 User defined
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
6 Restart the system
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
The command /sbin/telinit could be used to change runlevel.
 What to do in which runlevel is defined in the file /etc/inittab.
 In Pardus, these levels call müdür with the corresponding parametrer and
 only one of the user defined runlevels is used as the normal runlevel.
 These müdür parameters are
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
sysinit Do the base boot/init operations
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
boot Do the rest of the boot/init operations
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
shutdown Do shutdown operations (runlevel 0)
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
single Get the system to single-user mode (level 1)
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
default Run the services (level 3)
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
reboot Do shutdown operations (level 6)
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
A level you could need here is the single-user level, which you could get
 to with the commands "telinit 5" and "telinit 1".
 In this level, müdür shuts down the services and you can login as root
 and do things like repairing the system.
 You can give the command "telinit 3" to return to normal run mode.
 
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
You can use reboot and halt commands for shutdown; look at the "shutdown"
 command for more flexible shutdown operations.
 
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsection*
Records
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
System language, keyboard map and locale has predefined values in müdür.
 They can be set in the file /etc/conf.d/mudur and can be changed via kernel
 parameter mudur.
 After Müdür sets these values, for programs like kdm to not visit the same
 places and again for them to get the values easily, it writes them to files
 named keymap, language and locale in /etc/mudur/.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Müdür saves the events it encounters to /var/log/mudur.log.
 Part of a sample file:
\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
Aug 26 13:55:08 (up 7.65) /sbin/mudur.py sysinit
\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
Aug 26 10:55:15 (up 14.44) /sbin/mudur.py boot
\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
Aug 26 10:55:16 (up 15.84) /sbin/mudur.py default
\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
Aug 26 15:58:42 (up 18221.40) /sbin/mudur.py shutdown
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
The lines have the form "date (job run time) information".
 Job run time is calculated as the seconds that has passed since the kernel
 started working.
 It is put there in order to show better the time of the event as there
 occurs a correction in date when synchronizing the system clock to hardware
 clock in boot.
 
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
In the example, müdür is called for base boot/init operations towards the
 8th second, for the rest of the boot/init operations towards the 15th second,
 and is called at around the 16th second for it to start the services.
 And it once again runs for shutdown operations after a work of about five
 hours.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
In normal run mode, only warning and error messages and call statuses are
 written to this file.
 If you want all output of müdür to be saved, you can do so with a debug=1
 line in /etc/conf.d/mudur or with a mudur=debug kernel parameter given in
 the boot loader.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsection*
Other Commands
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsubsection*
/sbin/muavin.py
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Muavin that loads device drivers lists which drivers to load for the found
 devices when called with the -debug parameter.
 This can be informative when there is a problem with hardware recognition.If
 you want it to load these drivers, you can use the --coldplug parameter.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsubsection*
/sbin/update-environment
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
You might have to use this command, which you won't normally need, if you
 compiled a program manually.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Some programs need environment variables that needs to be set in the system
 and user sessions.
 For example Java wants the directory name that the Java executables are
 in to be set in a variable named JAVA_HOME.
 Applications, -like QT- putting their libraries in non-standard locations
 like /usr/qt3/lib instead of standard locations like /usr/lib want to add
 their own directory path to environment variables like LDPATH, which shows
 where loadable libraries can be found.
 
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
The directory /etc/env.d is used for program packages to be able to assign
 values to these variables.
 When a pisi package puts a file here, the command update-environment run
 by the help of Çomar reads these files and creates a profile file for the
 system shell, changes the file /etc/ld.so.conf file to contain the new paths
 if the library paths have changed, and makes the dynamic library loader
 index these new directories in the file /etc/ld.so.cache using the command
 /sbin/ldconfig.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsubsection*
/sbin/update-modules
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
You might have to use these command, which you won't normally need to run,
 if you compiled a kernel module manually.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
This command, run after the installation of pisi packages that contain kernel
 modules by Çomar, runs the command /sbin/depmod, and creates the files
 modules.*map, modules.dep and modules.alias that show which devices these
 modules support and their dependencies.
  These files that are in directories like /lib/modules/2.6.16.24-29/ for each
 kernel are used by muavin and the modprobe command.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Also if the package has placed a file in the directory /etc/modules.d/, these
 files are scanned and the file /etc/modprobe.conf, showing the load type
 and parameteres is updated.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Section
Settings
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsection*
Bootloader Settings
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
The list of operating systems in the menu of the bootloader and with what
 parameters the kernel will run is set from the file /boot/grub/grub.conf.
 You can get detailed information on these settings from the documentation
 of the Grub software.
 You can also change these settings only for that session when your choice
 cursor is on the system that you will boot by pressing 'e' when the computer
 is turned on and the Grub menu comes out.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
The kernel line in the operating system records of Grub define the Linux
 kernel to be loaded and its parameters.
 The syntax is as follows:
\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
kernel (device)/file param1=value param2=value1,value2,value3 param3 ...
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
The first part is the the storage device the kernel is in and the filename
 of the kernel.
 After that comes the parameteres to be sent to that kernel.Parameters can
 be alone, with a value, or with more than one value.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Some kernel parameters that can be needed:
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
quiet This option, on by default, disallows the kernel to print technical
 data that it finds when scanning for hardware, if there is a hardware problem
 that occurred before müdür started, you can remove this option and ger
 more information.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
splash Makes show a graphical logo at boot, for a textmode boot, remove
 this option and "console" option.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
noacpi In some BIOSes that do not comply to the standards, it is possible
 to run the kernel with this option.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
mudur You can change some settings of müdür with this option.
 It is explained in more detail in the section "Müdür settings".
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
You can find all the kernel parameters and their explanations in /usr/src/linux/
Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt after installing the kernel-source package.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsection*
Müdür Settings
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Müdür is called by init, and init settings which you normally won't need
 to modify are found in the file /etc/inittab.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
The settings of Müdür itself can be made in /etc/conf.d/mudur file and the
 kernel parameter mudur given with the bootloader.
 The settings given from the kernel are used instead of the ones in the
 file.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
safe If this option is given, some hardware operations that can cause problems
 won't be made and of the services, only the kdm service and the services
 it depends on will be run.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
language It defines the language that will be used in boot and the login
 screen.
 The default value is Turkish.
 If the installation is done in another language, that language is selected
 in the settings file.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
keymap If you don't want to use the default keyboard map of the system language,
 you can select another map with this option.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
clock If you hardware clock is set according to Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
 set its value to UTC, if your hardware clock is set to local time set its
 value to local.The default value is local time.This option can only be given
 in the settings file.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
tty_number If the number of textmode consoles you want to use is different
 than six, you can define this option.This option can only be given in the
 settings file.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
debug If this option is given, müdür will save all its output in the file
 /var/log/mudur.log, and provide error correction information.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Some samples:
\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
mudur=safe,debug
\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
mudur=language:tr,keymap:trf
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsection*
Hardware Settings
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
The kernel modules that could not be loaded at bootup or you want loaded
 whatever happens, you can write one module name in each line to files named
 like kernel-x.y.z under the directory /etc/modules.autoload.d directory.When
 looking for these files, if for example kernel 2.6.16.24 is running, kernel-2.6.16
 and kernel-2.6 files will be checked in that order.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
In the same manner, if there are modules that cause trouble if autoloaded,
 they can be written to the file /etc/hotplug/blacklist or any file in /etc/hotp
lug/blacklist.d/ directory again one module name in one line.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
To give specific parameters to modules, you can create a file in /etc/modules.d
 and give commands like alias, install, options according to the syntax
 given in modprobe.conf.The update-modules command which is a part of Müdür
 looks for these files and creates a /etc/modprobe.conf file.Do not write
 your commands to this file directly as it will be automatically overwritten
 when you install a new module package or kernel.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
It is enough to put a rule file in the /etc/udev/rules.d/ directory in order
 to do things like making settings, naming or running a specific program
 when a hardware is plugged.When a files with an extension of .rules is put
 here, it is automatically involved in the system.For the syntax of the rules
 file, check udev documentation.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Müdür can set some of the hard disk parameters during boot-up.
 If you are in such a need, you can give the parameters you want to the
 disks you want in the /etc/conf.d/hdparm file.To learn what the parameters
 are, check the documentation for the hdparm command.As some parameters can
 cause you trouble, it is advised to be careful.The syntax of the file consists
 of lines like, device name = 
\begin_inset Quotes eld
\end_inset

parameters
\begin_inset Quotes erd
\end_inset

.
 Device name can be any harddisk device found under the /dev/ directory,
 or "all" for all the disks connected.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsection*
Other Settings
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
You can use the /etc/sysctl.conf file for kernel settings that are lost when
 shut down and are done with the help of filesystem /proc/sys.For example,
 in order to turn off answering to pings sent to all computers, you can
 add a line like:
\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts = 1
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
.
 When this file is read during boot-up, this particular ability of the kernel
 will be run by writing the value "1" to the icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts
 file under /proc/sys/net/ipv4.
 For more information, you can consult to kernel documentation  and the
 sysctl command.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
The settings files of the services are also generally in the directory /etc/conf.
d/
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Two important files among them are the local.start and local.stop files.
 The first one is a shell script run when booting up and the second one
 is a shell script run when shutting down.If needed, you can put your own
 commands in these files which are not used by Pardus and which belong totally
 to the users.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Section
Packaging Information
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
When creating a Pisi package, you might encounter situations where you need
 to make the program you packed part of the boot-up process.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsection*
Kernel Module Packages
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
When making a package that includes kernel modules, you must not include
 the modules.* files from right under the /lib/modules/2.6.xx.xx/ directory,
 or else you may come up with file conflicts.
 These files will be automatically generated using the update-modules command
 by scanning the modules in the system when module packages are being installed.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
If these files are generated in the package installation directory when
 building the module, you can simply delete them in actions.py by a
\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
pisitools.remove("/lib/modules/*/modules.*")
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
line.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
If you want a module to be loaded whatsoever in every boot, you can have
 it written as a line in kernel-2.x or kernel-2.x.y file (depending on your
 need) under the directory /etc/modules.autoload.d/ in your Çomar System.Package
 script.
 Also check if a line like that is already in the file.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
If it necessary to avoid automatic loading of a module even if the hardware
 exists, you must write the module name to a seperate line in a file named
 the same as your package name in /etc/hotplug/blacklist.d/ directory.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
The modules to your parameters you must also write to a file that has your
 module's name in the /etc/modules.d/ directory.During the installation, update-mo
dules will again automatically update /etc/modprobe.conf file.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsection*
Hardware Packages
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Use the udev system in order to catch hardware freezes and do somethings
 on them.It shall be enough to put the rules file that you will prepare to
 /etc/udev/rules.d/ directory.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsection*
Service Packages
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
If you are packing a file that will work and serve in the background, or
 if there are commands that you need run during bootup, you need to write
 a Çomar System.Service script and add it to your package.Information on that
 script is given in the next section.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsection*
Environment Variables
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
If you want to send environment variables to the shell and make additions
 to library or command paths, it is enough to put lines like
\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
LALA=
\begin_inset Quotes erd
\end_inset

trying
\begin_inset Quotes erd
\end_inset


\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
LDPATH=
\begin_inset Quotes erd
\end_inset

/usr/lala/lib
\begin_inset Quotes erd
\end_inset


\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
to a file in /etc/env.d/ directory.To define priorities to your variables,
 name the file like XXpackagename where XX is a number between 00 to 99.
 When these files are interpreted and added to the system, the system starts
 with 00 and goes towards 99, and each new value overwrites the previous
 one.
 This is true except for variables about paths, like PATH, LDPATH, MANPATH
 etc., as those are added to one another with : signs.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Section
Service Scripts
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsection*
Çomar System.Service Class
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Service scripts written for Müdür get recorded in this class in Çomar, and
 they provide the following methods:
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsubsection*
System.Service.info
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Returns information about the service.
 The first line gives the type of the service, the second gives status,
 and the last line gives the localized name of the service.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
There are three types of services:
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
server Init scripts of web, shell or email services like Apache, OpenSSH,
 and Postfix, serving other computers.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
local Init scripts of services like DBus, HAL and Zemberek that serve local
 software for the Pardus desktop to function properly.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
script Scripts that do not start a service but rather do some predefined
 functons in the boot process.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
A service can be in four situations:
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
on The service is on at all times and is currently working.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
started The service is normally turned off but is started by the user.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
stopped The service is normally on but is stopped for some reason, or it
 could not start normally.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
off The service is turned off.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Service type and name, is designed to be shown in user interfaces.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsubsection*
System.Service.start
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Starts the service.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsubsection*
System.Service.stop
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Stops the service.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsubsection*
System.Service.reload
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
If the service supports the operation, this makes the service reload its
 settings and refresh itself.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsubsection*
System.Service.setState (state)
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Changes the state of the service.If the "state" parameter is given "on",
 the service gets started and is set to start everytime the system is turned
 on or restarted.Giving the state "off" will stop the service and remove
 it from system init procedures so that it doesn't start automatically.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsubsection*
System.Service.ready
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
If the service is set "on", this calls the start method.
 Müdür sends this message to all of the services at boot and starts them.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsubsection*
System.Service.changed
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
This warning is sent when the status of the service changes.
 Returns parameter "started" or "stopped".
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsection*
Çomar comar.service Module
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Frequently used functions in service scripts are provided in this Python
 module, which comes with the comar-api package.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
When you use
\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
from comar.service import *
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
in your scripts, the info, setState and ready methods will be defined for
 you.This way, you can write a service script with only the start and stop
 methods.These readily available functions get script type and name information
 from the serviceType and serviceDesc variables that you will define in
 your script.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
If you write a status function that returns True if your service is running
 or False otherwise, it will be used when reporting the status of your service
 in the info call.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Even if you import this module, you can define these functions yourself;
 and in that case, what you defined in your script will be used.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
You can also find these functions in the module:
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsubsection*
run()
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Runs a command (its parameter) without starting a new shell and returns
 the command's return value.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
An example:
\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
run("/sbin/start-stop-daemon --start --quiet --exec /usr/sbin/cpufreqd")
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsubsection*
checkDaemon()
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Checks to see if the service pointed by the pid file is running or not.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
An example:
\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
def status():
\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
    return checkDaemon("/var/run/kdm.pid")
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsubsection*
waitBus()
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
Returns True if the Unix socket whose filename is given as a parameter could
 be connected or False otherwise.
 You can use this command to wait if there is a time gap between the start
 of a service and it being able to listen to the clients.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
With the optional parameter "timeout", you can set the maximum waiting time
 (default 5 seconds) and with the again optional parameter "wait", you can
 set the interval between the "tries" (default 0.1 second).
 If you are trying to connect to a socket of the type datagram rather than
 of type stream, you must also provide a parameter "stream" with a value
 of "false".
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
An example (is the log service ready?):
\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
waitBus("/dev/log", stream=False)
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
One more: (is the dbus service ready?):
\end_layout

\begin_layout LyX-Code
waitBus("/var/lib/dbus/system_bus_socket")
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsubsection*
loadEnvironment()
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
It reads the environment variables from the /etc/profile.env file and makes
 them accessible for the currently-running process.
 This way, you can run the services that use those variables without starting
 a new shell.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsubsection*
config
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
This is actually a Python dictionary variable containing the settings as
 name=value pairs found in /etc/conf.d/scriptpackagename.If the name of the
 settings file you are using is different from that of the script package
 name, you can assign the filename to the serviceConf variable (again as
 a file in /etc/conf.d)
\end_layout

\begin_layout Section
Technical Structure
\end_layout

\begin_layout Standard
We are using a structure as modern as possible in Pardus boot system.
 Works like creating device files and recognizing hardware are handled totally
 by udev, netlink socket connection is used instead of the old hotplug system
 between the kernel and udev, finding of the module of a hardware is held
 dynamically by comparing information like producer/product that come from
 the sysfs file system and what hardware already installed modules support;
 the boot system and service scripts are written in the high-level language
 of Python.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsection*
Our primary approach
\end_layout

\begin_layout Itemize
Hardware recognition must be dynamic, the installed system must be able
 to keep on working normally without requiring any manual settings when
 hardware changes occur.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Itemize
Integration of the programs to the system must be easy and free of potential
 problems.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Itemize
An early problem in the boot probess makes it hard to rescue the system;
 and thus, primary operations must be very concrete, and the system must
 try and work to fix it when an error occurs, and must provide more secure
 boot options.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Itemize
The system must be flexible, but nevertheless provide the requires performance.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Subsection*
Design Decisions
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
The reason for choosing Python is pretty obvious.We chose a language which
 is easy to read and maintain, which has a powerful support for string,
 list and dictionary types, which is object-oriented and functional, in
 which fast and clean programming is the main consideration.The sourcecode
 size decreases drastically, and on the other side, our properties and speed
 increases.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
Disk\InsetSpace ~
speed That pretty high reading speed of harddisks fall considerably
 as a result of the unnecessary movements of the harddisk's reader heads.
 Among the reasons of these unnecessary movements are the fragmentation
 of the filesystem, access to many files, making the read and write operations
 in one another on different files, and making read operations not at once
 but one piece at a time.
 In order to avoid that, we kept the main part of Müdür as a single file
 (mudur.py), we called external files with their full path (like /sbin/mount),
 we made use of the advantage of the Python interpreter providing many modules
 (os, sys, string, time, glob etc.) being loaded at once, and we avoided
 using temporary files which has to be used frequently as a result of the
 kernel's weakness.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
Çomar We chose using Çomar scripts instead of the classical shell scripts
 under /etc/init.d/.
 The disadvantage here is having to use the service scripts again.
 But there being software which require service scripts in distribution
 under 5%, it being only composed of only writing a start and stop method
 in a language easy as Python, and Pisi packagers being already working
 with Python make this disadvantage practically unimportant.
 Using an already established Çomar structure makes it easy to write tools
 to manage the services and distribute service management authority to users.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
init Unlike other boot system trials (like initng, depinit), we kept away
 from changing the base process.This process does its job very good and has
 the power of years in it.
 We do not start working parallelly before the boot process ends; we are
 running Çomar and the services parallel and Müdür is started by init.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
sleep The command we stay most away from.
 Instead of "sleep"ing for a while and assuming that the events we are waiting
 for are completed, we check if those events are actually realized.For example,
 instead of starting syslogd and waiting for a second before going on with
 the operations, we wait for the /dev/log socket to be open; this way, it
 works both faster and more concrete.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
udev It is used by almost all distributions.
 It is much more clean and flexible than the classical /dev directory which
 is kept in the disk and the devfs which is part of the kernel for a while
 and then is thrown away.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Description
During hardware recognition, our muavin program is between udev and modprobe.
 Our purpose in not modprobing the MODALIAS value that comes from the kernel
 is to be able to include a more flexible control in-between.
 MODALIAS is not yet successful especially in buses like ISAPNP.
 Muavin also takes care of modules like CPU frequency modules which include
 more heuristic methods.
\end_layout

\begin_layout Section
Document History
\end_layout

\begin_layout Itemize
First release (2006-08-25), Gürer Özen
\end_layout

\end_body
\end_document